Percutaneous Mitral or Aortic Balloon Valvuloplasty
A balloon valvuloplasty is a heart operation used to open abnormally narrowed (stenotic) valves in the heart, in order to promote normal blood flow. If the mitral valve is stenotic, blood may back up into the lungs, causing congestive heart failure. If the aortic valve is stenotic, the main pumping chamber of the heart generates an abnormally high pressure. The heart may become thickened and stiff, leading to chest pain (angina), congestive heart failure, fainting, or sudden death.
Balloon valvuloplasty is a minimally invasive procedure performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. A balloon is inserted into a vessel in the groin and advanced to the heart. The balloon is transiently inflated across the narrowed valve and then withdrawn. Once opened, the valve function is improved.
Percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMBV) is a well-accepted procedure. The results are comparable to surgical repair of a narrowed mitral valve. Percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty (PABV) carries significantly less risk than surgical aortic valve replacement. However, improvement after the surgical heart procedure is frequently limited. Therefore, the procedure is recommended for patients who are not candidates for valve surgery.
Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Closure/Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure
A Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) is a hole in the heart that didn’t close the way it should after birth. The condition is relatively common. Most people with a PFO never know they have it. Closure of the PFO is sometimes recommended for individuals with recurrent strokes when no other cause has been found. Using cardiac catheterization, doctors can insert a device that plugs the PFO.
An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall (septum) between the two upper heart chambers (left and right atria). An ASD is among the most common types of congenital heart diseases. Heart problems related to ASD include right heart chamber enlargement, blood leaking backwards in the valve between the right heart chambers (tricuspid valve regurgitation), heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation or stroke. Doctors insert a closure device, made of metal and special fabric, into the defective area through a small tube (catheter) to close the hole.
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) Closure
A ventricular septal defect (VSD), also called a hole in the heart, is a common heart defect that is present at birth (congenital) or sometimes caused after a heart attack. Doctors can insert a closure device, made of metal and special fabric, into the defective area through a small tube (catheter) to close the hole.